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        2030年前碳達峰行動方案(6)(中英對照)

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        6. The action for promoting circular economy in carbon mitigation purpose

        (六)循環經濟助力降碳行動。

        Focusing on resource utilization as a key factor, we will push ahead with the development of the circular economy, and work toward an all-around improvement in the efficiency of resource utilization. In the process, we will fully leverage synergistic effects between efforts to reduce resource consumption and cut carbon emissions.

        抓住資源利用這個源頭,大力發展循環經濟,全面提高資源利用效率,充分發揮減少資源消耗和降碳的協同作用。

        (a) Pushing industrial parks to develop in a circular manner

        1.推進產業園區循環化發展。

        Setting our sights on enhancing the productivity of resources and raising the rate at which they are recycled, we will optimize the spatial layout of industrial parks, and retrofit these parks to facilitate circular production. Circular production in enterprises and circular organization of industries in these parks will be encouraged as well, and arrangements will be made for enterprises to conduct retrofits for clean production. We will promote the comprehensive utilization of waste, cascading use of energy, and circular use of water resources. To be specific, we will facilitate the recycling of residual heat and pressure as well as waste gas, liquid, and slag from industrial processes, and actively expand the application of centralized gas and heating supply. We will set up platforms for sharing infrastructure and public services, and strengthen the management of material flow in parks. By 2030, all key industrial parks at the provincial level or above will be upgraded to support circular operations.

        以提升資源產出率和循環利用率為目標,優化園區空間布局,開展園區循環化改造。推動園區企業循環式生產、產業循環式組合,組織企業實施清潔生產改造,促進廢物綜合利用、能量梯級利用、水資源循環利用,推進工業余壓余熱、廢氣廢液廢渣資源化利用,積極推廣集中供氣供熱。搭建基礎設施和公共服務共享平臺,加強園區物質流管理。到2030年,省級以上重點產業園區全部實施循環化改造。

        (b) Strengthening the comprehensive use of bulk solid waste

        2.加強大宗固廢綜合利用。

        We will enhance the comprehensive utilization level and increase the multipurpose utilization rates of mineral resources. We will support the large-scale utilization of waste in manner that maximizes proportion and value with a focus on bulk solid wastes including coal gangue, coal fly ash, tailings, associated minerals, smelting slag, byproduct gypsum, construction refuse, and crop straw, and encourage the use of such waste as a substitute for raw non-metallic minerals and gravel. On the condition of being safe and eco-friendly, we will explore the use of phosphogypsum in improving soil, back filling underground mines, and preparing sub-grade for roads. The recycling of construction wastes will be promoted, and the in-situ reclamation and use of abandoned pavement materials will be widely applied. We will accelerate the recycling of crop straw in a way that maximizes its value by refining systems for purchase, storage, and transportation, while strictly enforcing the burning ban. We will also speed up efforts to carry out demonstration projects for the comprehensive utilization of bulk solid waste. By 2025, the amount of bulk solid waste recycled annually will reach around 4 billion metric tons, rising to about 4.5 billion by 2030.

        提高礦產資源綜合開發利用水平和綜合利用率,以煤矸石、粉煤灰、尾礦、共伴生礦、冶煉渣、工業副產石膏、建筑垃圾、農作物秸稈等大宗固廢為重點,支持大摻量、規?;?、高值化利用,鼓勵應用于替代原生非金屬礦、砂石等資源。在確保安全環保前提下,探索將磷石膏應用于土壤改良、井下充填、路基修筑等。推動建筑垃圾資源化利用,推廣廢棄路面材料原地再生利用。加快推進秸稈高值化利用,完善收儲運體系,嚴格禁燒管控。加快大宗固廢綜合利用示范建設。到2025年,大宗固廢年利用量達到40億噸左右;到2030年,年利用量達到45億噸左右。

        (c) Refining systems for resource recycling

        3.健全資源循環利用體系。

        We will improve recycling networks for used materials and waste, and put an "Internet +" recycling model into practice, thus realizing the reclamation of renewable resources to the fullest possible extent. We will strengthen the standardized management of industries related to the comprehensive utilization of renewable resources in order to foster industry clusters. We will advance the high-standard construction of modernized centers for recovering mineral resources from urban waste, and promote the clean, standardized, and large-scale use of renewable resources. We will push forward circular utilization of waste from emerging industries such as decommissioned batteries, photovoltaic modules, and rotor blades of wind turbines. We will also drive high-quality development of remanufacturing industries such as auto parts, engineering machinery, and stationery and office equipment. We will expand the use of remanufactured products and products made from recycled resources. By 2025, the total amount of nine major reusable resources including steel scrap, cooper, aluminum, lead, zinc, waste paper, plastic, rubber, and glass recycled will top 450 million metric tons, reaching 510 million by 2030.

        完善廢舊物資回收網絡,推行“互聯網+”回收模式,實現再生資源應收盡收。加強再生資源綜合利用行業規范管理,促進產業集聚發展。高水平建設現代化“城市礦產”基地,推動再生資源規范化、規?;?、清潔化利用。推進退役動力電池、光伏組件、風電機組葉片等新興產業廢物循環利用。促進汽車零部件、工程機械、文辦設備等再制造產業高質量發展。加強資源再生產品和再制造產品推廣應用。到2025年,廢鋼鐵、廢銅、廢鋁、廢鉛、廢鋅、廢紙、廢塑料、廢橡膠、廢玻璃等9種主要再生資源循環利用量達到4.5億噸,到2030年達到5.1億噸。

        (d) Vigorously promoting efforts to reduce and recycle household waste

        4.大力推進生活垃圾減量化資源化。

        We will move steadily ahead with the sorting of household waste, and work faster to establish collection, transportation, and disposal systems for household waste covering all of society, thereby ensuring that all household waste can be discarded, collected, transported, and disposed of in a well-sorted manner. We will intensify efforts to control plastic pollution throughout the entire process from production to recycling, and take action against excessive packaging, so as to reduce the amount of household waste from this source. We will promote incineration of household waste, bring down the proportion of waste disposed in landfills, and develop recycling technology that is tailored to the peculiarities of kitchen waste in China. The recycling of sewage will also be advanced. By 2025, a basic sorting system for urban household waste will be established, with the reclamation rate up to about 60%. By 2030, the sorting system for urban household waste will cover all cities, and the reclamation rate will rise to 65%.

        扎實推進生活垃圾分類,加快建立覆蓋全社會的生活垃圾收運處置體系,全面實現分類投放、分類收集、分類運輸、分類處理。加強塑料污染全鏈條治理,整治過度包裝,推動生活垃圾源頭減量。推進生活垃圾焚燒處理,降低填埋比例,探索適合我國廚余垃圾特性的資源化利用技術。推進污水資源化利用。到2025年,城市生活垃圾分類體系基本健全,生活垃圾資源化利用比例提升至60%左右。到2030年,城市生活垃圾分類實現全覆蓋,生活垃圾資源化利用比例提升至65%。

        7. The action for advancing green and low-carbon technology innovation

        (七)綠色低碳科技創新行動。

        We will give full play to the supporting and guiding role of scientific and technological innovation and improve the relevant mechanisms and systems, so as to enhance our innovation capability and accelerate the revolution in green and low-carbon science and technology.

        發揮科技創新的支撐引領作用,完善科技創新體制機制,強化創新能力,加快綠色低碳科技革命。

        (a) Improving innovation mechanisms and systems

        1.完善創新體制機制。

        An action plan will be formulated to ensure that science and technology support and guide China's achievement of peaking carbon dioxide emissions and achieving carbon neutrality. Major R&D and demonstration projects for key technologies related to the achievement of peaking carbon dioxide emissions and achieving carbon neutrality will be set up in national key R&D programs, making use of open competition mechanisms to select the best candidates to lead the projects, and intensifying core technology research for reaching low carbon, zero carbon, and carbon negative. Achievements in green and low-carbon technological innovation will be included in the performance assessments of institutions of universities, scientific and research institutes, and state-owned enterprises. We will boost the principal role of enterprises in innovation, support their participation in major national green and low-carbon science and technology projects, and encourage the sharing of facilities, data, and other resources. A national green technology trade center will be set up to accelerate the commercialization of innovations. The intellectual property rights protection for green and low-carbon technologies and products will be strengthened, and the testing, evaluation, and certification systems for them will be improved.

        制定科技支撐碳達峰碳中和行動方案,在國家重點研發計劃中設立碳達峰碳中和關鍵技術研究與示范等重點專項,采取“揭榜掛帥”機制,開展低碳零碳負碳關鍵核心技術攻關。將綠色低碳技術創新成果納入高等學校、科研單位、國有企業有關績效考核。強化企業創新主體地位,支持企業承擔國家綠色低碳重大科技項目,鼓勵設施、數據等資源開放共享。推進國家綠色技術交易中心建設,加快創新成果轉化。加強綠色低碳技術和產品知識產權保護。完善綠色低碳技術和產品檢測、評估、認證體系。

        (b) Enhancing innovation capability and personnel training

        2.加強創新能力建設和人才培養。

        National laboratories, key national laboratories, and national technology innovation centers related to the realization of peaking carbon dioxide emissions and achieving carbon neutrality will be set up, relevant major national science and technology infrastructure will be planned in advance, and enterprises, universities, and research institutes will be guided in a joint effort to build national green and low-carbon industrial innovation centers. We will develop new approaches in personnel training, encourage institutions of universities to accelerate discipline development and talent training in new energy, energy storage, hydrogen energy, carbon emissions mitigation, carbon sinks, and the carbon emission trading, and establish a group of future institutes of technology, modern industrial institutes, and demonstration energy institutes focusing on green and low-carbon technologies. We will deepen industry-education integration, encourage school-enterprise cooperation in educating students, launch an alliance for industry-education integration on the realization of peaking carbon dioxide emissions and achieving carbon neutrality, and set up a number of national innovation platforms for industry-education integration on energy storage technology.

        組建碳達峰碳中和相關國家實驗室、國家重點實驗室和國家技術創新中心,適度超前布局國家重大科技基礎設施,引導企業、高等學校、科研單位共建一批國家綠色低碳產業創新中心。創新人才培養模式,鼓勵高等學校加快新能源、儲能、氫能、碳減排、碳匯、碳排放權交易等學科建設和人才培養,建設一批綠色低碳領域未來技術學院、現代產業學院和示范性能源學院。深化產教融合,鼓勵校企聯合開展產學合作協同育人項目,組建碳達峰碳中和產教融合發展聯盟,建設一批國家儲能技術產教融合創新平臺。

        (c) Boosting application-oriented basic research

        3.強化應用基礎研究。

        We will launch a group of major national projects for forward-looking, strategically important cutting-edge technologies with a view to making breakthroughs in low-carbon, zero-carbon, and carbon-negative technological equipment R&D. Focusing on green and smart development and the clean, low-carbon utilization of fossil energy, large-scale utilization of renewable energy, new types of power system, energy conservation, hydrogen energy, energy storage, power batteries, and carbon dioxide capture, utilization, and storage, we will deepen application-oriented basic research. We will step up R&D in advanced nuclear energy technology, particularly cutting edge and disruptive technologies such as controlled nuclear fusion.

        實施一批具有前瞻性、戰略性的國家重大前沿科技項目,推動低碳零碳負碳技術裝備研發取得突破性進展。聚焦化石能源綠色智能開發和清潔低碳利用、可再生能源大規模利用、新型電力系統、節能、氫能、儲能、動力電池、二氧化碳捕集利用與封存等重點,深化應用基礎研究。積極研發先進核電技術,加強可控核聚變等前沿顛覆性技術研究。

        (d) Accelerating the R&D and wider application of advanced practical technologies

        4.加快先進適用技術研發和推廣應用。

        We will intensify innovation on technologies, particularly into the safe, stable operation and control of major complex power grids, large wind farms, high-efficiency photovoltaic panels, heavy-duty liquefied natural gas engines, large capacity energy storage, low-cost hydrogen production from renewable energy sources, and low-cost carbon dioxide capture, utilization, and storage; accelerate R&D in basic materials such as carbon fiber, aerogel, and special steel; and shore up our short slab in key spare parts, components, and software. We will broaden the application of advanced, mature green and low-carbon technologies and carry out related demonstrations. We will carry out demonstration projects for whole-process, integrated, and large-scale carbon dioxide capture, utilization, and storage as well as demonstrations for the application of molten salt storage for heat supply and power generation. R&D into hydrogen energy technology and its demonstrations applications will be accelerated, and its large-scale application will be trialed in industry, transportation, and construction.

        集中力量開展復雜大電網安全穩定運行和控制、大容量風電、高效光伏、大功率液化天然氣發動機、大容量儲能、低成本可再生能源制氫、低成本二氧化碳捕集利用與封存等技術創新,加快碳纖維、氣凝膠、特種鋼材等基礎材料研發,補齊關鍵零部件、元器件、軟件等短板。推廣先進成熟綠色低碳技術,開展示范應用。建設全流程、集成化、規?;趸疾都门c封存示范項目。推進熔鹽儲能供熱和發電示范應用。加快氫能技術研發和示范應用,探索在工業、交通運輸、建筑等領域規?;瘧?。

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